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allopurinol prescribing information

A xanthine oxidase inhibitor called allopurinol is given to people with gout, recurring calcium oxalate calculi, and various cancers to lower their uric acid levels in their urine and serum.

Other names for this medication:
Aloprim, Zyloprim

Similar Products:
Indocin, Feldene, Neoral, Cyclosporine, Naprosyn, Piroxicam, Arcoxia, Motrin, Colchicine, Naproxen, Etoricoxib

Description

The structural analogue of hypoxanthine, a natural purine base, is allopurinol. Xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol is taken orally. Around 90% of allopurinol is absorbed from the GI tract. Approximately 20% of the ingested Allopurinol is excreted in the faeces. While acting on purine catabolism, it does not interfere with purine biosynthesis. Its plasma half-life ranges from one to two hours. It is an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, the enzyme that converts hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid, the byproduct of purine metabolism. By preventing the biochemical processes that occur just before uric acid formation, it lowers the production of uric acid. Peak plasma levels typically happen between 1.5 and 4.5 hours.

Dosage

Adults should take between 200 and 400 mg/m2/day of allopurinol injection to reduce high uric acid levels in the body brought on by cancer treatment. Allopurinol 150 mg per day is typically administered to children under the age of 6. For doses greater than 300 mg, two or three smaller doses should be taken throughout the day. Ages 6 to 10 cancer patients are advised to take 300 mg per day. Exactly as directed, take allopurinol. Allopurinol 600 mg or 800 mg daily (divided into two or three smaller doses per day) for two or three days is the adult dose for cancer patients, along with a high fluid intake. Afterward, based on the level of uric acid in your blood, the dose of allopurinol is increased by 100 mg each week. The dosage your doctor prescribes may depend on the following factors: the condition being treated; other medications you are taking; other conditions you have; how your body reacts to Aloprim; and kidney function. Allopurinol Tablets The adult dosage range is 100 mg to 800 mg. The daily dose cap is 600 mg. A dose of 800 mg is the maximum advised amount. The recommended starting daily dose of Aloprim for children is 200 mg/m2/day. The suggested initial dosage is 100 mg per day. Adults should take 200 mg or 300 mg of calcium oxalate per day, either all at once or in smaller doses spaced out throughout the day (two or three). To prevent a flare-up of gout attacks that could happen when starting allopurinol, your doctor will probably start you on a low dose and gradually increase it.

Missed dose

Never take two doses at once to make up for missed ones. To continue with your regular dosing schedule, skip the missed dose if it is almost time for the next one. As soon as you realize you missed a dose, take it.

Overdose

If you take too much too much allopurinol, call your local Poison Control Center or seek emergency medical attention right away.

Storage

Store in a cool and dry place, protected from light.

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Side effects

To prevent dehydration when you are ill, sip water frequently and in small amounts. A skin rash or redness should be reported to a doctor right away if you notice it because Stevens-Johnson syndrome, a potentially fatal skin condition, can result. It may also occur if allopurinol is abruptly stopped for a few days and then resumed at the same dosage. Flu-like symptoms first appear, then a rash that is red or purple develops and blisters. Additionally, it is best to wait at least two weeks before beginning allopurinol if you have recently received a vaccination, viral infection, or rash from another source. The dose should be lowered first, then gradually increased. In the first eight weeks of using allopurinol or when the dose is increased too quickly, it is more likely to occur. Serious side effects from taking allopurinol are unusual. Allopurinol can have side effects, like all medications can, though not everyone experiences them. Stevens-Johnson syndrome is a rare side effect of allopurinol. Tell a doctor straight away if you: get yellow skin or the whites of your eyes go yellow – these can be signs of a liver problem get a high temperature, sore throat and swollen glands or feel generally unwell – this could mean there are problems with your white blood cells have bruising for no obvious reason or bleeding gums (which takes a long time to stop) when brushing your teeth are unusually thirsty, going to the toilet to pee a lot, unusually tired, losing weight without trying, blurred vision – these could be signs of diabetes In rare cases, it's possible to have a serious allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) to allopurinol. Eventually, the damaged skin dies and flakes off. The most frequent side effects are feeling or being sick. These can be reduced if you eat little and often and drink lots of fluids such as water or squash.

Interactions

Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information. Especially tell your doctor if you take: an ACE inhibitor cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) mercaptopurine (Purinethol) azathioprine (Imuran) blood thinners such as warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) chlorpropamide (Diabinese) probenecid (Benemid) cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) didanosine (Videx, Videx EC) sulfinpyrazone (Anturane) a diuretic (thiazides) ampicillin (Omnipen, Principen, Polycillin) amoxicillin (Amoxil, Trimox) This is not a complete list of allopurinol drug interactions. Inform your doctor about all of the medications you take, including vitamins, herbal supplements, prescription and non-prescription drugs.

Contraindications

Drowsiness is a side effect of allopurinol. Even though it is used to prevent gout attacks, allopurinol can initially cause flare-ups of gouty arthritis. Until you understand how allopurinol affects you, avoid operating machinery or driving a car. To avoid kidney stone development while taking allopurinol, drink plenty of water or other fluids every day. Some individuals who took allopurinol experienced kidney failure. Allopurinol has caused severe allergic reactions, including fatalities. Allopurinol use has resulted in severe liver issues. If you experience a skin rash, stop taking this medication and consult your doctor. Although these occurrences are uncommon, let your doctor know if you experience itching, loss of appetite, or weight loss. To stop these flare-ups, your doctor may advise taking allopurinol initially in combination with another medication, such as colchicine. Tests to evaluate the function of your liver will likely be performed by your doctor.

Is Uloric safer than allopurinol?

In clinical trials sponsored by Takeda, Uloric's manufacturer, an 80-milligram dose of Uloric worked better than allopurinol; a 40-milligram dose worked at least as well as allopurinol. Unlike allopurinol, very little Uloric is excreted through the urine, making Uloric safe for patients with kidney problems.

When should allopurinol be used?

Allopurinol is used to prevent or lower high uric acid levels in the blood. It is also used to prevent or lower excess uric acid levels caused by cancer medicines or in patients with kidney stones. A high uric acid level can cause gout or gouty arthritis (joint pain and inflammation).

Is Zyloprim the same as allopurinol?

Allopurinol works by reducing the amount of uric acid made by the body. Increased uric acid levels can cause gout and kidney problems. Allopurinol is available under the following different brand names: Zyloprim and Aloprim.

Can I drive or ride a bike?

Allopurinol can make you feel sleepy. Do not drive a car, ride a bike, or operate machinery if allopurinol makes you feel sleepy or unable to concentrate or make decisions. This may be more likely when you first start taking allopurinol, but could happen at any time – for example, when starting another medicine. It's an offence to drive a car if your ability to drive safely is affected. It's your responsibility to decide if it's safe to drive. If you're in any doubt, do not drive. GOV.UK has more information on the law on drugs and driving. Talk to a doctor or pharmacist if you're unsure whether it's safe for you to drive while taking allopurinol.

What will happen if I stop taking it?

If you stop allopurinol treatment suddenly, there is a high risk that gout may get worse or you will get serious side effects. Only stop taking allopurinol if a doctor tells you to. A doctor will help you to reduce your dose slowly so you do not get serious side effects.

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Testimonials
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krishan lal Sep 30, 2015, 1:15:49 AM

Keep out of the reach and sight of children. If you are taking allopurinol for cancer then treatment with allopurinol will begin before treatment with cancer drugs. o Fever, swollen lymph glands, joint pain, swollen blood vessels, inflammation of the liver (hepatitis), jaundice (yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes), kidney damage (blood in the urine) or fits.

user91433 Dec 26, 2013, 2:12:18 AM

These steps may reduce the risk of xanthine and/or oxipurinol deposition complicating the clinical situation. It is important to ensure adequate hydration to maintain optimum diuresis and to attempt alkalinisation of urine to increase solubility of urinary urate/uric acid. 100 mg/day to reduce the risk of adverse reactions and increased only if the serum urate response is unsatisfactory. Reduced doses should be used in patients with hepatic impairment. If urate nephropathy or other pathology has compromised renal function, the advice given in section 4.2 Renal impairment should be followed.

Fotina Jun 8, 2011, 7:27:15 AM

We performed a randomized, controlled study of the efficacy of allopurinol plus meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime), as compared with meglumine antimoniate alone, in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis, who were recruited from a village in southeastern Colombia. Previous studies in vitro have shown synergism between allopurinol and pentavalent antimony in tissue-culture systems. An inexpensive, orally administered compound would be a substantial advance in treatment. There was no significant difference between the cure rate with allopurinol plus meglumine antimoniate and that with allopurinol alone.

Farhan Javed May 17, 2019, 9:03:46 AM

Your doctor may also instruct you on how to decrease acid in your urine (e.g., avoiding large amounts of ascorbic acid/vitamin C). If your doctor has directed you to drink less fluid for other medical reasons, consult your doctor for further instructions. Allopurinol works by reducing the amount of uric acid made by the body. It is also used to prevent increased uric acid levels in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy.

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